Open Data Repositories
Over the past decade, an increasing number of governmental and non-governmental organizations around the globe have begun to pro-actively share public data through open data repositories. While some of these datasets were previously available as individual files on isolated websites, these growing networks have made open data easier to find, enabled more frequent agency updates, and sometimes support live interaction with other computers. Open data repositories often include these features:
- View and Export: At minimum, open data repositories allow users to view and export data in common spreadsheet formats, such as CSV, ODS, and XLSX. Some repositories also provide geographical boundary files for creating maps.
- Built-in Visualization Tools: Several repositories offer built-in tools for users to create interactive charts or maps on the platform site. Some also provide code snippets for users to embed these built-in visualizations into their own websites, which you’ll learn more about in Chapter 10: Embed on the Web.
- Application Programming Interface (APIs): Some repositories provide endpoints with code instructions that allow other computers to pull data directly from the platform into an external site or online visualization. When repositories continuously update data and publish an API endpoint, it can be an ideal way to display live or “almost live” data in your visualization, which you’ll learn more about in Chapter 13: Leaflet Map Templates.
Due to the recent growth of open data repositories, especially in governmental policy and scientific research, there is no single website that lists all of them. Instead, we list just a few sites from the US and around the globe to spark readers’ curiosity and encourage you to dig deeper:
- Data.gov, the official repository for US federal government agencies.
- Data.census.gov, the main platform to access US Census Bureau data. The Decennial Census is a full count of the population every ten years, while the American Community Survey (ACS) is an annual sample count that produces one-year, three-year, or five-year estimates for different census geographies, with margins of error.
- Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union.
- Federal Reserve Economic Research, for US and international data.
- Global Open Data Index, by the Open Knowledge Foundation.
- Google Dataset Search.
- Harvard Dataverse, open to all researchers from any discipline.
- Humanitarian Data Exchange, by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.
- IPUMS, Integrated Public Use Microdata Series, the world’s largest individual-level population database, with microdata samples from US and international census records and surveys, hosted by the University of Minnesota.
- openAfrica, by Code for Africa.
- Open Data Inception, a map-oriented global directory.
- Open Data Network, a directory by Socrata, primarily of US state and municipal open data platforms.
- United Nations data.
- World Bank Open Data, a global collection of economic development data.
- World Inequality Database, global data on income and wealth inequality.
In addition, better-resourced higher-education libraries and other organizations may pay subscription fees that allow their students and staff to access “closed” data repositories. For example, Social Explorer offers decades of demographic, economic, health, education, religion, and crime data for local and national geographies, primarily for the US, Canada, and Europe. Previously, Social Explorer made many files available to the public, but it now requires a paid subscription or 14-day free trial. Also, Policy Map provides demographic, economic, housing, and quality of life data for US areas, and makes some publicly visible in its Open Map view, but you need a subscription to download them.
See also how to find geographic boundary files in GeoJSON format, an open data standard used for creating maps in this book, in Chapter 14: Transform Your Map Data.
Now that you’ve learned more about navigating open data repositories, the next section will teach you ways to properly source the data that you discover.