In the first half of this book, you created interactive charts and maps on free drag-and-drop tool platforms created by companies such as Google and Tableau. These platforms are great for beginners, but their pre-set tools limit your options for designing and customizing your visualizations, and they also require you to depend upon their web servers and terms of service to host your data and work products. If these companies change their tools or terms, you have little choice in the matter, other than deleting your account and switching services, which means that your online charts and maps would appear to audiences as dead links.
In the second half of this book, get ready to make a big leap—and we’ll help you through every step—by learning how to copy, edit, and host code templates. These templates are pre-written software instructions that allow you to upload your data, customize its appearance, and display your interactive charts and maps on a web site that you control. No prior coding experience is required, but it helps if you’re code-curious and willing to experiment with your computer.
Code templates are similar to cookbook recipes. Imagine you’re in your kitchen, looking at our favorite recipe we’ve publicly shared to make brownies (yum!), which begins with these three steps:
Melt butter, Add sugar, Mix in cocoa. Recipes are templates, meaning that you can follow them precisely, or modify them to suit your tastes. Imagine that you copy our recipe (or “fork” it, as coders say) and insert a new step:
Add walnuts. If you also publicly share your recipe, now there will be two versions of instructions, to suit both those who strongly prefer or dislike nuts in their brownies. (We do not take sides in this deeply polarizing dispute.)
Currently, the most popular cookbook among coders is GitHub, with more than 40 million users and over 100 million recipes (or “code repositories” or “repos”). You can sign up for a free account and choose to make your repos private (like Grandma’s secret recipes) or public (like the ones we share below). Since GitHub was designed to be public, think twice before uploading any confidential or sensitive information that should not be shared with others. GitHub encourages sharing open-source code, meaning the creator grants permission for others to freely distribute and modify it, based on the conditions of the type of license they have selected.
When you create a brand-new repo, GitHub invites you to Choose a License. Two of the most popular open-source software licenses are the MIT License, which is very permissive, and the GNU General Public License version 3, which mandates that any modifications be shared under the same license. The latter version is often described as a copyleft license that requires any derivatives of the original code to remain publicly accessible, in contrast to traditional copyright that favors private ownership. When you fork a copy of someone’s open-source code on GitHub, look at the type of license they’ve chosen (if any), keep it in your version, and respect its terms.
To be clear, the GitHub platform is also owned by a large company (Microsoft purchased it in 2018), and when using it to share or host code, you’re also dependent on its tools and terms. But the magic of code templates is that you can migrate and host your work anywhere on the web. You could move to a competing repository-hosting service such as GitLab, or purchase your own domain name and server space through one of many web hosting services. Or you can choose a hybrid option, such as hosting your code on GitHub and choosing its custom domain option, to display it under a domain name that you’ve purchased from an internet service provider.
In the next section of this chapter, we will introduce basic steps to copy, edit, and host a simple Leaflet map code template on GitHub. When you publish any chart or map code template by hosting it on GitHub Pages, you can easily transform its online link into an iframe that you can embed on a secondary website, which we discussed in Chapter 9. Later you’ll learn how to create a new GitHub repo and upload code files.
This chapter introduces GitHub using its web browser interface, which works best for beginners. Later you’ll learn about intermediate-level tools, such as GitHub Desktop and Atom Editor, to work more efficiently with code repos on your personal computer.
If problems arise, turn to the Fix Common Problems section in the appendix. All of us make mistakes and accidentally “break our code” from time to time, and it’s a great way to learn how things work—and what to do when it doesn’t work!